skilled in geometry, ingenious devices (!lival), music and astronomy. According to Ibn al-Nad!m and Ibn Khallikän their weakest subject was astronamy, but this. Results 1 – 27 of 27 Kitâb al-hiyal of Banû Mûsa bin Shâkir, interpreted in sense of modern system and control engineering. Prep. by Atilla Bir; Edited by. KITAB AL-HIYAL. IN THE POLITICAL PHILOSOPHY OF THE UMMAH. UNINTERRUPTED degeneration of the Muslim Polity to an absolute despotism and rapid.

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Consequently, if the principle of Khilafah by people’s consent means appointment of an imam by the unanimous agreement of the people of the East and the West, then its practical difficulties and consequent impossibility should not entail its complete suspension or permanent postponement.

The ingredient is posited by the moral obligation and religious duty that leads one to pursue actively the realization of the good state. Survey of the Historical Sources. They changed the character-complex of Islam, modified its societal configuration, resulting in the disintegration of its spirit, with its gradual redintegration into creature of a new make.

It was not an aspect, but the whole religion itself that took a full turning with AlGhazali. II, section IV, pp. There is no such implication of the principle; what it implies as a norm of the political authority is utmost degree of its realization.

But, since the conception of society as a living organism with all its full ao, has never been articulated in the articles of faith in Islam, it cannot be used as a ground of legal deductions and Shar’i conclusion, without impairing the structure of its sacred Law.

But, the powerful Umayyads foiled his intents, and enthroned Marvan. He states that every Shar’i obligation consists of two aspects: Hassan, al- Ahmad Y. If the file has been modified from its original state, some details such as the timestamp may not fully reflect those of the original file.

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Kitab al-Hiyal

English translation by J S. In this manner, he gets rid of the principal component of the Imamah, vizits constitution by the agreement of the ql. But, in spite of their doctrinal estrangement from the Ummah, the Abbasid rulers did not abandon the practice of extorting bayah from the people like their Umayyad predecessors.


The Shariah had remained suspended of its public and social effects, till the European political philosophy reawakened the Muslims to the acceptance and necessity of the majority principle in the constitution of states and its formalization in the conduct of governments.

Collected and reprinted by F. The second part of al-Mamun’s pretentions for his authority is based on an axiom which purports to condone the present state of affairs till the beginning of a better one.

Consequently, when there is no change in the beauty and ugliness, there could be no change in the judgement relating to them.

The Mechanics of Banu Musa in the Light of Modern System and Control Engineering | Muslim Heritage

In both the constructs appeal is made to the present state of affairs, which solely, by virute of its presence, and for no other reason logically required of the Shar’i deduction, is treated as the sufficient ground for its existential continuation.

By means of dynamic equations approximate mathematical models are derived, litab agreement with the physical principles, specific simplifications and possible assumptions.

Special symbols are also derived as in the model of the turbine motif. I, the copyright holder of this work, hereby publish it under the following license:.

The problem which faced the jurists attached to the Abbasids, then, was not to derive the ideal Muslim kitxb from the hjyal a priori, but rather to institute a very loose filtering, which should permit, at the price of some retouching or else at the price of a few wiles of a few suggested reforms, the bestowal upon the regime as a whole of its certificate of ‘Good Muslim.

In evaluating different properties it is possible to give different models hiyl a given system. For the realization, the most suitable model is chosen and it is kept unchanged hital the work as far as possible, although difficulties come up especially in deriving the model of the? The victory of the Abbasids was essentially and fundamentally a victory of a new doctrine, that implied a radical transformation of the religious outlook; it was a victory of theocracy over the community-view of the organization of Ummah ; of unmitigated monarchy over the prospects of the governance by consultation, of sacrosanct character of a particular house over the Divine character of the consensus of the people.


For a certain time, ancient and medieval mechanics was handled with the tools of modern science and engineering. The book also describes a boiler with a tap to access hot water. The book provides the first examples of various mechanic elements, technical drawings, logic and kitxb systems and especially automatically controlled systems. Aberrations like this deeply vitiated the propositions of politico-juristic though in Islam.

Consequently, the idea of darurah cannot have an indisciplined biyal in the usul al’Shariah.

The book of ingenious devices (Kitab al-hiyal): Ahmad ibn Musa Ibn Shakir: : Books

It was meant to be an Asl Grund-Begrif of the religion. While this may seem to be an anachronistic approach, the only interpretative method fully explains how all these devices worked. Get to Know Us. The water entering from b into the lower uiyal goes through the pipes h to the upper section.

The Mechanics of Banu Musa in the Light of Modern System and Control Engineering

In their combination they produce the state of Idtarar. This page was last edited on 5 Novemberat By making individual responsible for his religion, Luther of the West democratized the spirit, and began an kitah of progress leading to science and industrial revolution, new theories of government and political reformations. This can only be done by Shar’i concession to the one, who occupies the seat of supreme authority of the Ummah.