The Holmes-Rahe Life Stress Inventory. The Social Readjustment Rating Scale. INSTRUCTIONS: Mark down the point value of each of these life events that has . History. In , psychiatrists Thomas Holmes and Richard. Rahe examined over patient’s medical records to determine whether stressful events cause. Their results were published as the Social Readjustment Rating Scale (SRRS) [1] , now commonly known as the Holmes and Rahe Stress.

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For Permissions, please email: Source The questionnaire is free to use and downloadable [ 1 ].

A modified scale has also been developed for non-adults. Journal of Psychosomatic Research stres, 14 4 Psychosocial predictors of illness behavior and failure in stressful training. More events mean a higher score.

Holmes–Rahe Stress Inventory | Occupational Medicine | Oxford Academic

Prediction of near-future health change from subjects’ preceding life changes. J Health Soc Behav. Post-traumatic growth in ex- military personnel: Email alerts New issue alert. Saul McLeodpublished The researchers concluded that as Life Change Units were positively correlated with illness scores, experiencing life events increased the chances of stress-related health breakdown.

Loneliness and social isolation of military veterans: Conclusion The SRRS is surprisingly consistent despite the cross-cultural differences one would expect. Items Although the scale was originally developed and validated on males, it provides useful results for both male and female subjects.


Each one of the 43 stressful life events was awarded a Life Change Unit depending on how traumatic it was felt to be by a large sample of participants.

Receive exclusive offers and updates golmes Oxford Academic. This page was last edited on 3 Novemberat Therefore a better measure of stress might look at the inentory and strains of daily life. As Life Change Units increased, so did the frequency of illness.

Over the next six months, detailed records were kept of the sailors’ health. Inpsychiatrists Thomas Holmes and Richard Rahe examined the medical records of over 5, medical patients as a way to determine whether stressful events might cause illnesses.

An opportunity sample of American participants, including 52 women and 48 men, all white, well-educated and middle class were asked to circle the events on both scales that they had experienced the previous month and rate each according to severity for the hassles and frequency for the uplifts.

Daily hassles and uplifts versus major life events. Citing articles via Web of Science 1. SRRS – stress of life events. The scale was also assessed against different populations within the USA African, Mexican and white American groups [ 6 ] and cross-culturally, comparing Japanese [ 7 ] and Malaysian [ 8 ] with American populations. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy.

Holmes and Rahe stress scale

Sensitization in the UK Supreme Court. Malaysians exhibited different attitudes implying different stress at the same score.

The higher the score, and the larger the weight of each event, the more likely the patient would become ill. Most people experience major life events infrequently hence a better measure might look at the stresses and strains of daily life [ 10 ]. They developed a item hassles scale and a uplifts scale to examine the relationship between hassles and health.

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Patients were asked to tally a list of 43 life events based on a relative score.

Kanner et al were interested in investigating whether it is daily hassles, rather than major life events that are the most stressful. Subsequent validation supported the stgess between stress and illness [ 2 ]. Uplifts had a positive effect on the stress levels of women, but not men. Not necessarily true e.

Rahe carried out a study in testing the validity of the stress scale as a predictor of illness. As the correlation was not perfect, life events cannot be the only factor in contributing to illness. Views Read Edit View history.

The scale assumes that each stressor affects people the same way. Subsequent validation has supported the links between stress and illness. The reliability of the Social Readjustment Rating Scale:

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