Yaws is a non-venereal tropical infectious disease caused by the organism Treponema pertenue. This organism is closely related to the. Yaws is an infectious tropical disease caused by the spirochete (spiral shaped) bacterium known as Treponema pertenue. The disease presents in three stages . Yaws is a tropical disease characterized by a primary cutaneous lesion, followed by a granulomatous skin eruption, and sometimes by late destructive lesions of.
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It occurs in children younger than 15 years of age. The latent period is defined as a positive serology with no clinical signs.
Tropical Medicine Central Resource
These lesions change in color and eventually lose all color depigmentation. To access free multiple choice questions on this topic, click here. Each year it affects more thanchildren between the ages of 5 and 15 in 13 endemic countries of West Africa, Southeast Asia and the Pacific.
Clear Turn Off Turn On. Clinically, the disease is comprised of distinct stages similar to venereal syphilis with cutaneous findings in early stages, and after a latent period, late yaws may manifest as gummatous nodules, scarring, and destructive bone lesions.
There are many features that distinguish it from Yaws: The diagnosis of stage 1 and stage 2 yaws is made by microscopic examination of tissue samples darkfield examination from the skin lesions of affected individuals. The third, however, may involve complex changes to the bones in many parts of the body.
Darkfield microscopy does allow direct visualization of spirochetes; however, equipment is often not available in endemic areas. Two countries that used to harbor disease now boast eradication and those are India and Ecuador.
This dosing is lower than used in venereal syphilis. In MarchWHO convened a new meeting of yaws experts in Geneva to further discuss the strategy of the new eradication campaign. Venereal syphilis which is not specifically included in this chapter is equally intransigent: Prevention is, in part, by curing those who have the disease thereby decreasing the risk of transmission. Standard Therapies Treatment Stage 1 and 2 yaws is treated with antibiotics, especially with benzathine penicillin G.
Stage 3 yaws may be diagnosed by specialized blood tests i. Benzathine penicillin subsequently supplanted this as it was found to have prolonged treponemicidal levels and convenient dosing. This is due to the host immune response against the organism. It manifests itself in the form of painful ulcers on the skin, which are also a means of contagion of the tropicaal. Dracunculiasis Eradication of dracunculiasis Poliomyelitis Eradication of poliomyelitis Malaria Eradication of malaria Yaws Eradication of yaws.
Chlamydophila psittaci Psittacosis Chlamydophila pneumoniae. Cutaneous manifestations are the most common and are typically near joints with ulcerative necrotic nodules.
The first stage is characterized by the appearance of small, painless bumps on the skin that group together and grow until they resemble a strawberry. It is unclear how many people worldwide are infected at present. These sores usually heal slowly and may recur. About three quarters of people affected are children under 15 years of age, with the greatest incidence in children 6—10 years old.
Nearby “daughter yaws” may also appear simultaneously. Views Read Edit View history. This page was last edited on 4 Decemberat The content of the website and databases of the National Organization for Rare Disorders NORD is copyrighted and may not be reproduced, copied, downloaded or disseminated, in any way, for any commercial or public purpose, without prior written authorization and approval from NORD.
In between primary and secondary or secondary and tertiary stages, a latent period occurs. In addition, only qualified personnel, who do not abound in yaws endemic areas, can administer the injections. Yaws is believed to have originated in tropical areas of Africa, and spread to other tropical areas of the world via immigration and the slave trade.
The Merck Manual-Home Edition. Koff AB, Rosen T. However incomplete eradication led to a resurgence of yaws in the s with the largest number of case found in the Western Africa region. Primary and secondary lesions heal spontaneously after 3 to 6 months with or without treatment, but when untreated a minority of patients develop the late-stage disease.
Archived from the original on 3 Tdopical The nonvenereal treponematoses can be subdivided according to the organism responsible: Successful Rinderpest Eradication of rinderpest. A single itchy, strawberry-like growth appears on the skin over which a thin yellow crust forms papillomatous lesion. At the present time, there is no treatment for the destructive bone lesions or scars frambezia with stage 3 yaws.
Retrieved 5 August Globalization and disease Mathematical modelling of disease Pandemic Transmission horizontal vertical Vaccination Zoonosis.
Rare Disease Database
These organisms reproduce every 30 hours and with corkscrew motility these move through connective tissue. One to 2 months after inoculation, up to 2 yearspatients develop disseminated papillomatous or ulcerative lesions with macular or hyperkeratotic palmoplantar involvement. Information on current clinical trials is posted on the Internet at www.
Yaws is found in tropical regions with warm and humid environments. D ICD – Bacteroides fragilis Tannerella forsythia Capnocytophaga canimorsus Porphyromonas gingivalis Prevotella intermedia. About News Events Contact. Painful skin and bone nodules may impair joint function and mobility.
The latter is likely the way it was introduced to Europe from Africa in the 15th century.