Peruvian intellectual José Carlos Mariátegui (–) mentioned as a ripe site for new . tegui calls “el problema del indio.” Mariátegui’s. En este programa tratamos un capítulo de Siete ensayos de interpretación la realidad peruana de José Carlos Mariátegui. Puedes leerlo. Esquema de la evolución económicaEl problema del indioEl problema de la tierraEl proceso de la instrucción públicaEl factor religioso.

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Coastal landowners are compelled to accept, albeit in a restricted and attenuated form, the system of free labor and wages.

Countries that were able to cure themselves of it after independence have progressed; those that are still afflicted are backward. Through indenture and yanaconazgo, the large proprietors block the appearance of free-wage contracting, a functional necessity to a liberal and capitalist economy. Agricultural credit—absolutely dependent on the interests of these firms until a national agricultural bank is established—does not promote any other crop.

Siete ensayos de interpretación de la realidad peruana

A cattle rancher recently told me that whereas a loan extended on a cotton crop is Limited only by price fluctuations, a loan on a herd or ranch is entirely ad hoc and uncertain. Fourth—communities that have the use of the land. In these cases, payment should be specified in kind instead of money. Since we share the same points of view, we necessarily reach the same conclusions. Therefore, it would be absurd to accuse us of being romantic or literary.

Books by José Carlos Mariátegui (Author of Seven Interpretive Essays on Peruvian Reality)

But since circumstances combine to impose a given kind of life in customs, work systems, properties, and industries, each group has predominant characteristics that make it agricultural, livestock, livestock with communal pastures and water, or usufructuary of the land which unquestionably belonged to mariatdgui ayllu. But Aguirre Morales is also the victim of fallacious reasoning.

The hacendado reserves the best land for himself and distributes the least fertile among his Indian laborers, who are obliged to work the former without pay and to live off the produce of the latter. If it is taken into account that most fertile lands are in the hands of the large landowners, since the struggle for land in the south has reached the point where the Indian owner is gotten rid of by force indjo by murder, and that the ignorance of the communal farmer induces him to iindio about the amount of his harvest in fear of new taxes or assessments by minor political authorities or their agents, it can readily be inferred that the higher production figure for individual property is not accurate and that the difference is negligible.


The Indian instinctively regards it as a weapon of gamonalismo. There are two expressions of feudalism that survive: When the agrarian problem is presented in these terms, it cannot be easily distorted.

The medieval regime, in theory and practice, reconciled feudal property with community property. One of the pronlema evident causes of the rise in food prices in coastal towns is the displacement of traditional food crops by cotton on the farmland of the coast. In this way, the landholding aristocracy and its adherents became the beneficiaries of the fiscal policy and the exploitation of guano and nitrate.

Seven Interpretative Essays on Peruvian Reality

The nature of agricultural property in Peru is one of the greatest obstacles to the development of a national capitalism. Those who thought the wealth of Peru lay in its precious metals converted mining into a factor in the liquidation of human resources and the decline of agriculture by using forced labor.

Why has this problem of our ddel not been solved? The second class also lived in comfort, peacefully engaged in industry or commerce; it was the middle class that sat on the municipal council.

The more enlightened landowners would have realized that the latifundium as it now operates leads to depopulation and that, therefore, the labor problem is one incio its most obvious v and inevitable consequences. Mariategul Peru these conditions existed even less than in other countries at the time of the War of Independence. It is not possible to speak abstractly of tyranny.


Thus was inaugurated a regime that, whatever its principles, made the condition of the Indian to some extent worse instead of better. Its civilization was agrarian in all its important I aspects.

Payment in produce makes landlords more independent of price fluctuations in the wheat and labor markets. Within the hacienda, transportation, business, and even customs are controlled by the landlord. The agrarian situation in the sierra, on the other hand, shows the fallacy of the above argument.

Jose Carlos Mariategui: Seven Interpretative Essays on Peruvian Reality Essay 3,

Part of the irrigated land in the Imperial Valley has been set aside for small farms. Schkaff, La question agrcdre en Russie, pp.

But there is so much ignorance of the elementary principles of socialism that it is worthwhile repeating that this formula—the breaking up of the latifundium in favor of small property—is neither Utopian, nor heretical, nor revolutionary, nor Bolshevik, nor ddel, but orthodox, constitutional, democratic, capitalist, and bourgeois.

The Jesuits took advantage of indigenous communism in Peru, in Mexico, mariateguo, on a still larger scale, in Paraguay, for purposes of religious instruction. Therefore what use would this liberty invented by our civilization be to the Indian? In the countries of Central and Eastern Europe—Czechoslovakia, Rumania, Poland, Bulgaria, et cetera—agrarian laws have been passed limiting land ownership, in principle, to a maximum of five hundred hectares.

It did not use them to create duchies or to reward patriotic services, but to promote popular education. The subordination of the Indian problem to the problem of land is even more absolute, for special reasons.