Editors’ Note: In her well-known book on The Shadow Negotiation, Kolb focused .. 4 See Deborah M. Kolb & Judith Williams, Breakthrough Bargaining, in a dynamic we have come to call the “shadow negotiation” – the complex and “Breakthrough Bargaining,” by Deborah M. Kolb and Judith Williams, which. Breakthrough Bargaining. RM By Deborah M. Kolb and Judith Williams. Power moves; Process Breakthrough Bargaining. Negotiation.
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But if she conforms to feminine expectations and consults widely, she is seen as indecisive. Gender can also become salient because others expect that and act as if gender matters. Deborah Kolb and Judith Williams, whose book The Shadow Negotiation was the starting bargainning for this article, say there are three strategies businesspeople can use to guide these hidden interactions. Transformation also aims for negotiated settlements, but for ones that attend to relational and identity concerns in addition to substantive matters.
Although this work embraces an interactional molb of gender, the research itself centers on outcomes rather than the micro processes that lead to them.
First, the approach treats men and women as internally homogenous categories, yet we know there is considerable variability within the sexes. Second, it fails to recognize that gender is hierarchically arrayed in society, and so to focus on difference is to accept a false symmetry in which the masculine emerges as the standard and the woman as the other. This type of asymmetry has created double binds for women in other research arenas.
From this perspective, gender is continually socially constructed, produced and reproduced.
Initially cast as individual differences, the field has moved to an interpretive and fluid conception of gender. The power and positioning of a negotiator are not breakthroubh established at the outset of the bargaining; but can be continually contested. Second generation issues enacted in organizations define the contexts for negotiations.
Without amending to these issues, even this contemporary work may reinforce existing sterotypes and practices. The gender lens perspective, in contrast, asks fundamental questions about the itself, particularly the positioning of negotiators as advocates and the way that gendered assumptions permeate the bargaining process.
Looking at negotiation through a postmodern lens highlights the sources and consequences of these power inequities.
Interaction Level and Gender Construction Gender can also become salient because others expect that and act as if gender matters. Process moves affect how negotiation issues are received by both sides in the process, even though they do not address substantive issues.
Breakthrough Bargaining – Harvard Business Review on Winning Negotiations [Book]
Delegitimizing one of the parties during a negotiation reduces the likelihood of a mutually beneficial outcome for both bargainers, unless the target is able to resist. However, these behaviors when enacted bargaininy a woman are likely to be seen differently than they are when men employ them.
These bargainihg moves don’t guarantee that all bargainers will walk away winners, but they help to get stalled negotiations moving–out of the dark of unspoken power plays and into the light of true dialogue. Attending to these social processes expands the strategic repertoire necessary for effective negotiations and provides bargainers with opportunities to connect during the process.
In a paradoxical way, the common approach to thinking about interdependence hinges on individualistic notions of dependence and independence. An Evaluation of the Evidence. In this approach, interdependence is negotiated rather than surfacing as a residual or byproduct of an agreement. By the same token, a woman might take up the role of helper or concentrate on the relationship, again because she perceives that the context calls for her to behave in that way. These turns are also ways of resisting gender stereotypes as well as responding to moves that can put any negotiator in a bteakthrough position.
This research vreakthrough the organizational field focuses on second generation gender issues. The framework of strategic moves—making value visible, raising the costs of the status quo, enlisting allies, and managing the process—is a new approach that enhances the stances at the table of negotiators who are in disadvantaged positions.
In essence, the guidelines for mutual gains negotiations—focusing on interests, identifying priorities, trading across differences—aim to promote interdependence. From this perspective, a focus on relationships, the skills of empathy, and the ability to manage conflict and competition simultaneously are thought although not explicitly tested to be advantageous in negotiations.
Harvard Business Review on Winning Negotiations by Harvard Business Review
For those interested in Family Mediation training A second conceptualization, promotive interdependence, stems from the integrative bargaining literature. This research, conducted by Kathleen McGinn, Hannah Riley Bowles, Linda Babcock and Michele Gelfand, indicates that bargaininv differences are more likely to be observed in distributive as opposed to integrative bargaining, when negotiators represent themselves rather than function as agents, and when situations are ambiguous as opposed to being structured.
Gender and Negotiator Competitiveness: Because most of the gender research occurs in the laboratory, the focus has been primarily on individuals in interaction. Kolb, Staying in the Game or Changing It: