Backus-Naur notation (shortly BNF) is a formal mathematical way to describe a language, (to The Backus-Naur Form is a way of defining syntax. It consists of. The standard technique for defining the syntax of a computer language is to use Backus-Naur Form (BNF). The variant used in this tutorial is as follows. A Practical Tutorial on Context Free Grammars. Robert B. . Backus-Naur Form ( BNF) is a notation for expressing a CFG. The notation.

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Backus–Naur form

To go beyond the expressive power of context-free grammars, one needs to allow a degree of context-sensitivity in the grammar. Not all of these are strictly a superset, as some change the rule-definition relation:: Each term in this particular rule is a rule-name. It’s common for find regular-expression-like operations inside grammars. Arithmetic like grouping provided simplification that removed using classes where grouping was its only value.

Studies of turorial algebra is commonly part of a mathematics. When describing languages, Backus-Naur form BNF is a formal notation for encoding grammars intended for human consumption.

To indicate precedence, EBNF grammars may use parentheses,to explictly define the order of expansion.

The language of languages

Retrieved May 11, Natural-language description further supplemented the syntax as well. Not to be confused with Boyce—Codd normal form. Retrieved from ” https: By equivalence is here meant that any of the three structures shown in the left column may be replaced, in any occurrence outside of strings, by the symbol shown in the same line in the right column without any effect on the action of the program.


Mathematical grouping were added. Anything other than the metasymbols:: A class is an abstraction, we can talk about it independent of its formation.

More important than the minor syntactic differences between the forms of EBNF are the additional operations it allows in expansions. Though yacc is most commonly used as a parser generatorits roots are obviously BNF.

Backus-Naur Form (BNF)

Tutoeial Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Symbols that never appear on a left side are terminals. There are many variants and extensions of BNF, generally either for the sake of simplicity and succinctness, or to adapt it to a specific application. After reading this article, you will be able to identify and interpret all commonly used notation for grammars.

Many spin-off metalanguages were inspired by BNF. This page was last edited on 6 Decemberat He also introduced a clear distinction between generative rules those of context-free grammars and transformation rules As proposed by Backus, the formula defined “classes” whose names are enclosed in angle brackets. In computer scienceBackus—Naur form or Backus normal form BNF is a notation technique for context-free grammarsoften used to describe the syntax of languages used in computing, such as computer programming languagesdocument formatsinstruction sets and communication protocols.


These changes made that META II and its derivative programming languages able to define and extend their own metalanguage. Each of these names denotes a class of basic symbols.

Backus–Naur form – Wikipedia

Extended Backus Naur Form”. Even when grammars are not an object of mathematical study themselves, in texts that deal with discrete mathematical structures, grammars appear to define new notations and new structures.

English is only one of the possible natural languages. Regular expressions sit just beneath context-free grammars in descriptive power: Wikipedia articles needing clarification firm April Wikipedia articles needing clarification from May Articles with inconsistent citation formats Pages using RFC magic links. Metalingustic variables do not require a rule defining their formation.

For instance, the Python lexical specification uses them. BNF is very similar to canonical-form boolean algebra equations that are, and were at the time, used in logic-circuit design.

The grammar for the entire Python anur uses a slightly different but still regular notation.

For the purpose of including text among the symbols of a program the following “comment” conventions hold:. Another common extension is the use of square brackets around optional items.