ASTM. D. D Standard Guide for Evaluating Nonwoven Fabrics. 1. Scope. This guide covers procedures for testing nonwoven fabrics. Find the most up-to-date version of ASTM D at Engineering This standard is issued under the fixed designation D ; the number 1 This guide is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee D13 on Textiles and.

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The microstructure of cotton fibers allows the penetration of water, in the case of the greige cotton nonwovens studied asrm. In recent years, the preference to use cotton fibers in nonwoven absorbent products has increased.

Cotton and cotton by-products in nonwovens In recent years, the preference to use cotton fibers in nonwoven absorbent products has increased. The differences between KFT and Kett are due, in part, to d11117 different nature of the two methods. The polyester water content value is consistent with that found in literature of fiber at standard testing conditions, around 0. Observation of aatm phenomenon is based on more accessible water binding sites, i. The swelling behavior of the incontinence products is measured using the Anton Paar analyzer with the cylindrical cell template.

In combination with surface-exposed cellulose from nonwoven hydroentanglement process conditions, astn fiber properties are retained when compared to scoured and bleached cotton. Thus, an increased capacity to hold water is observed as well in the relatively higher absorption capacity of the cotton by-product nonwovens, which have smaller cellulose crystallite size than the greige cotton Table 4.

A commercially available bale of precleaned greige cotton was acquired from T.

c1117 A quantity of cotton gin mote fibers was also obtained from T. The calculated X-ray diffraction pattern is shown in Figure 3. The nonwoven hydroentanglement of greige cotton lint with cotton gin motes and comber noils blends was analyzed for fiber surface polarity, swelling, astn absorbance to assess properties with potential usefulness in absorbent nonwovens.

As the voice of the U. The pH of the sample is about 5. Here we contrast cotton by-product blends in greige cotton nonwovens with a similar previous study where polyester was blended with precleaned greige cotton lint The water content in the blank vial was 0. Szalaty and Teofil Jesionowski.

Nonwoven fabrics made with cleaned greige cotton lint separately blended with comber noils and ginning motes at The basket is removed and allowed to drain for 10 s, and the sample is weighed to determine its water content.


The moisture measurements are based on weight loss and are taken with an infrared moisture balance Kett FDmanufactured by Kett Electric Laboratory in Tokyo, Japan.

A sample of bleached cotton prepared by similar process was not available for the testing. You may delete a document from your Alert Profile at any time. The potential to use greige cotton by-products as an economical source for absorbent nonwoven blends is explored. A peak width at half maximum height of 1.

ASTM D – 99 Standard Guide for Evaluating Nonwoven Fabrics

For all the fabrics, the low water pressure head was set to inject the water at 50 bars, and the two high water pressure heads were set at bars. Future studies will focus on specific functional applications for incontinence hygiene and wound care nonwovens. Fabric absorbency measurements The AATCC drop test measures the time it takes for one drop of water applied to a fabric held in an embroidery hoop to be absorbed when the sheen disappears. This affords an economical source of highly cleaned absorbent greige cotton nonwovens with the retention of properties inherent to the traditional cotton fabrics that generally require costly and eco-sensitive chemical scouring and bleaching processes.

Absorbent applications Highly cleaned greige cotton fiber retains most of its natural, native protective membrane or surface coating of waxes and pectin native to the greige cotton fiber.

The blended nonwoven materials possess absorbent properties characterized by similar moisture uptake 7. Each blend was formulated directly in the glass KFT vials by weight basis. We have no document history for this standard.

Water absorbency tests were also conducted. More statistics for editors and x1117 Login to your personal dashboard for more detailed statistics on your publications. The crystallinity index for each sample is as high as can be expected [ 20 ] for cotton and reflects nearly complete crystallinity.

The resulting hydroentangled fabric was dried using a meter-wide, gas-fired drum dryer and wound onto a cardboard tube to form a compact fabric roll. Need more than one copy? awtm

ASTM D 1117

Please first verify your email before subscribing to alerts. Bound versus free water and crystallite size in cotton blends It is an understatement to say that the nature of the binding of water to cotton plays a role in the swelling of the blended fabrics as are examined here. The test procedures appear in the following sections: The calculated surface-to-volume ratio of smaller cellulose crystallites, as observed with the cotton by-products, is higher than the greige cotton, which infers more accessible hydroxyls for bound water.


However, cellulose crystallite size varied. From this state, further water sorption then assumes the character of a capillary-like condensation and has been characterized as free water, i.

ASTM D – Standard Guide for Evaluating Nonwoven Fabrics

All weight loss is attributed to moisture. Thus, the hydroentanglement process promotes the disruption of the fiber cuticle that retains some wax and pectin while exposing cellulose fibrils and microfibrils to water penetration. However, the potential to use greige nonbleached cotton in nonwoven absorbent products has received increased attention based on innovations in cotton cleaning and nonwovens processes that open and expose the hydrophilic cellulosic component of greige cotton fiber to water absorption [ 1 – 3 ].

Diagram of a nonwovens hydroentanglement line. Streaming zeta potential experiments are carried out with an electrokinetic analyzer, which is manufactured in Ashland VA, Astn, using the cylindrical cell developed for the measurement of fibrous samples. Thus, it is demonstrated that the use of less expensive cotton gin motes—the by-product of cotton ginning process—in blends with cleaned greige cotton lint can potentially be useful and competitive for many nonwoven end-use products where absorbency or moisture uptake, swelling, biodegradability, and sustainability are desirable.

The amphiphilic surface character in nonwoven greige cotton, which is a combination of c1117 polarity balance between the hydrophilic and the hydrophobic elements of adtm cotton material, is suitable for asfm application to the material layer components of incontinence absorbent products and wipes [ 10 ].

The X-ray diffraction patterns for the individual gin motes, comber noils, and greige cotton UCC are shown in Figure 4. Table 4 gives the percent crystallinity and cellulose crystallite size of the different types of cotton fibers compared with bleached cotton.

As a check, standard oven drying was used on v1117 UC asttm and polyester fibers, generating a moisture content of 7. The other method is the recent ASTM Karl Fischer titration method for water content developed for lint cotton, raw and processed.

Additionally, the polyester PES fibers had not melted.