Psychological Reactance. A Theory of Freedom and Control. Book • Authors: Sharon S. Brehm and Jack W. Brehm. Browse book content. About the book. Advances in Consumer Research Volume 16, Pages PSYCHOLOGICAL REACTANCE: THEORY AND APPLICATIONS. Jack W. Brehm, University. Abstract. Since Brehm first proposed reactance theory in , many studies have explored the remarkable psychological phenomenon of reactance, which.

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Dual-process theories In Carlston D. The intensity of motivation. Now let us see how implied threats, too, can play a role. People respond to both kinds of freedom restrictions self- and vicariously experiencedbut Sittenthaler and colleagues presented evidence that the process underlying vicarious threats is different from the process of self-experienced threats.

And let us now ask why it should make any difference if there are implied threats to a few freedoms. In a line of research on cross-cultural reactance also see the section Reactance, Culture, and fheory SelfBremh and colleagues used psychologgical different approach to measure the experience of reactance. Psychological reactance and persuasive health communication: Determinism and the Paradox of Predictability.

These studies showed us that reactance is a state consisting of affective, cognitive, and motivational components. While there was an immediate increase in physiological arousal e. Let me eat what I want. For example, if a sportshirt is permissible attire at a certain restaurant, then presumably one is also free to wear a jacket and tie. And so what if it does?

Divergent responses to policies that constrain freedom. Interestingly, participants low in dispositional reactance showed the best performance if they were primed to work hard. Helpless individuals usually do not feel capable of changing an unpleasant situation.


Understanding Psychological Reactance

What happens when a number of freedoms are threatened? It is possible, for example, that you believe your spouse would gladly take away your freedoms to be with your same sex friends, but would never interfere with your time with the children. Cognition and Emotion, 1— The greater the number of freedoms lost, the greater should be the magnitude of reactance and consequent resistance to any particular selection. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Reactance, restoration, and cognitive structures: On the nature of reactance and its role in persuasive health communication.

Anger and frontal brain activity: With regard to the reactance process in the context of persuasion, research by Silvia showed that threats to freedom through persuasive messages can elicit disagreement through different paths and that these paths have different consequences.

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Jack Williams Brehm, A Theory of Psychological Reactance – PhilPapers

However, even if reactance can be conceptualized as a latent variable intermingling anger affect and negative cognition, we can distinguish further between more affect-driven impulsive processes and more cognition-driven reflective reactance processes. Chartrand, Dalton, and Fitzsimons showed that even subliminal primes can arouse reactance. Refining the prediction of effort: In two studies they found the best fit for the intertwined model.

Reactance in the eye of the observer. From this we can draw a couple of lessons about consumer behavior. And if they do it once, they surely will do it psychologial as n. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, psychologicla When attempts are made to persuade people by using a forceful message, this message motivates people to present arguments against the persuasive attempt counterarguing.

An interpersonal interpretation of the need for freedom. Psychological reactance increases relative left frontal cortical activation. If the hotel management, for example, announced that you cannot bring coffee into the conference rooms, then you might conclude that no liquids are allowed in the conference rooms-not even bloody marys at 8: For short messages, it has been found that the framing of the message as loss e.


Examples from the world about us come readily to mind. If, for example, I lose or misplace a book, my freedom to refer to or read that book is kf or lost, but there is no effect on any of my rheory freedoms.

Both the recipient of their response, and any uninvolved observer, will judge that they are “overreacting. An attribution approach to studying the arousal properties of dissonance.

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While these findings are far from an exhaustive account of research results predicted by the theory, they are enough to give one some notion of the theory’s usefulness. Inoculating against reactance to persuasive health messages. Being persuaded to buy a specific product in the grocery store, being forced to pay tuition fees, being prohibited reatance using a mobile phone in school, and being instructed to perform work for the boss are all examples of threats to the freedom to act as desired, and this is psychologica, reactance comes into play.

Miron and Brehm also suggested that another way of directly assessing reactance would be to use physiological measures.

The effect of stereotype activation and power on claiming and creating value.

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